LTSER Engure - Latvia
complex social-economic-ecological system
Lake Engure drainage area (644 sq.km) includes the Lake which is a remnant of Litorina sea formed about 4000 years ago. Part of the territory is the Lake Engure Nature Park, the Ramsar site including unique inland and marine wetlands. Most of the drainage area is covered by pine forests, but there are also large areas of marshlands, meadows, deciduous forests, dunes and agricultural lands. Avifauna lists 186 species, vascular plants – 844 species. 44 species of birds, 5 fish species and 3 plant species are protected at European level, 23 habitats are in EU Habitat Directive. The ecosystems of the area have been changed by different human activities historically well documented. The most important activities in ancient times included regulation of water level, hay making, pasturing, hunting, and fishery. The traditional settlement type was the former fishermen's village, which is characterized by its linear structure along the seashore and farmsteads inland. During the past decade, such settlements have been subject to a wave of summer cottage, second home and guest house construction. The agriculture and main industry (fishing and fish processing) has sharply declined. Nowadays, the highest number of employees is in the service sector (wholesale, catering, tourism and leisure industries). It sets a new kind of pressure to the ecosystems of the region.
General Characteristics, Purpose, History
The site serves as a model for investigation of functioning of socio-ecological system of boreonemoral zone under moderate anthropogenic pressure. Solving the problem of optimization of ecosystem services and sustainable development of the region. Investigation of long-term processes in lake water and sediment communities on the backround of climate warming and changing land use in the drainage area of the lake. Investigation of long-term successional changes in different plant communities. Investigation of grass-dwelling arthropod communities on the background of climate warming. Studies of dynamics of breeding bird fauna (species richness and abundance) in relation to different natural and anthropogenic factors, with the main focus on ducks, larids, waders and coot. Waterbird habitat management and maintaining.
Affiliation and Network Specific Information