LTER Ria de Aveiro - Portugal
LTER Ria de Aveiro
The Ria de Aveiro is a shallow coastal lagoon on the NW coast of Portugal. It is c. 45 km in length (NNE-SSW), 10 km wide and in a spring tide covers an area of approximately 83 km2 and 66 km2 of wetland at high water and low water, respectively. The only connection to the Atlantic Ocean is through a narrow channel 1.3 km in length, 350 m wide and 20 m deep. The bathymetry of the Ria de Aveiro consists of three main channels which radiate from the mouth with several branches, islands and mudflats: the Mira channel runs to the south and is narrow and shallow; the S. Jacinto - Ovar channel lies to the north and is wide and deep in its southern part but changes northwards, forming secondary narrow and shallow channels and bays; the Main channel bifurcates leading to the Ílhavo channel to the south and to the Espinheiro chanel, through which the major river, the Vouga, flows. The total fluvial discharge into the lagoon during a tidal cycle is about 1.8 x 10^6 m3, while the tidal prism is 137 x 10^6 m3 for maximum spring tide, and 35 x 106 m3 for minimum neap tide. The circulation in the Ria de Aveiro is therefore essentially dominated by tidal forcing. Due to the combined effects of the freshwater discharge and tidal penetration, the Ria de Aveiro exhibits a longitudinal salinity gradient from about 0 in the upper reaches of the channels to about 36 at the bar entrance. The tidal phase lag, relative to the mouth, is in the order of 6 h in the upper reaches of the channels. Geologically the Ria de Aveiro is a recent feature, formed through the accumulation of marine and riverine sediments during the last 1000 years in a wide and shallow bay, following the flandrian transgression. These mechanisms have not yet attained equilibrium and the present tendency is to silt up. Much of the present-day geomorphology of the Ria has been determined by human intervention directed to counterbalance this silt-up tendency, which culminated in the opening of the present inlet in the central part of the sand bar in the beginning of the 19th century and subsequent consolidation, in order to facilitate tidal flow. The Ria de Aveiro has a moderately low degree of eutrophication and low overall human influence in comparison to other estuarine environments. The implementation of EU policies with respect to the environment have, furthermore, greatly reduced the discharge of contaminants. There is, however, still substantial contamination in bottom sediments close to contaminant sources and these may become a major source of metals to the water column. The Ria de Aveiro also houses the largest area of contiguous salt marsh in Portugal and one of the largest in Europe in addition to housing important wintering populations of waders.
General Characteristics, Purpose, History
Spatial explicit studies of the ecological functions and processes that support ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands foreseeing human well-being. The generated science based knowledge aims to support ecosystems-based management approaches.
Affiliation and Network Specific Information