Bettlachstock - Switzerland
The forest site "Bettlachstock" has been installed in 1995 as part of the Swiss Long-term Forest Ecosystem Research Programme LWF. The programme investigates anthropogenic and natural forces on the long-term health of the forests and the potential risks to humans. For this, a profound understanding of the relationship between processes, causes and effects in the ecosystem are necessary. The objectives of the LWF research programme include (i) early detection and a representative assessment of changes in forest condition, (ii) determination of external influences, both from anthropogenic and natural sources such as element inputs and climate and their effect on the forest ecosystem, (iii) development of indicators to assess the condition of the forest, (iv) integrated risk assessment based on different stress scenarios, and (v) extended platform for internal and external research projects. The LWF research programme provides, on the one hand, long-term data series from the last 20 years, together with a scientific interpretation to national and international policy makers. On the other hand, the available data and latest LWF infrastructure provide an attractive scientific platform for collaboration with both national and international partners. The site is located next to Bettlachstock in the canton of Solothurn, within a natural, mixed forest stand which mainly consists of 170-190 year-old European beech (Fagus sylvatica), 190 year-old European silver fir (Abies alba), 200 year-old spruce (Picea abies), 170 year-old European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and 160 year-old Wych elm (Ulmus glabra) trees. Among others, the site is equipped with two meteorological measurement stations; one is located within the forest stand, the second is co-located in the nearby open-field, allowing to measure the forest stand effect on micro-climate. The following parameters are being measured (starting-end year): Atmospheric deposition (throughfall and bulk deposition) (1998-today), Circular vegetation plots (1995-today), Crown Condition Assessment (1995-today), Deadwood survey (1995, 2005), Diameter and Height measurements (2000-today), EC-5 soil water content measurement (2010-today), EC-5 soil water content measurement (2010-today), Foliar analyses (1997 (beech)-, 1995 (fir)-, 2009 (spruce)-today), Leaf area index (LAI) (1996-today), Lichens (2003-today), Litter layer humidity and temperature (2000-today), Litterfall (1998-today), Manual circumference band measurement (2001-today), Matric potential (manual suction cups) (1998-today), Meteorological measurements (1997-today), O3 Injuries (2002-today), Ozone visible injury assessment (2002-today), Passive sampling of NH3 (1999-2000), Passive sampling of NO2 (1999-2000), Passive sampling of O3 (2000-today), Permanent vegetation quadrats (1995-today), Phenological observations (1998-today), Sapflow measurements, Soil matrix chemistry (1998-today), Soil morphology (1998-today), Soil solution chemistry (lysimeters) (1999-today), Soil temperature (2000-today), Tree core sampling (1802-1997), Tree crown measurements (1995-today), Deadwood sampling (2009-today).
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